Thursday, May 25, 2023

How slavery nearly split California in two states?


The issue of slavery did play a significant role in the early history of California and had the potential to split the state into two separate entities. Here's a brief overview of the events:

During the mid-19th century, there was a growing divide between the Northern and Southern regions of the United States over the issue of slavery. The Compromise of 1850, a series of laws passed by the U.S. Congress, aimed to address this divide. As part of the compromise, California was admitted to the Union as a free state in 1850, meaning slavery was prohibited.

However, tensions remained high in California due to the significant population of Southern sympathizers and pro-slavery individuals, particularly in the southern part of the state. Some individuals in Southern California felt marginalized by the dominant political power held by the more populous Northern region.

In 1859, the California State Legislature approved a bill known as the Pico Act, which sought to divide the state into two separate entities—Southern California and Northern California. The proposed Southern California would have allowed slavery, while the Northern region would remain free. The bill was strongly supported by pro-slavery advocates in the south and Spanish-speaking residents who thought the state’s tax and land laws were unfair, but faced opposition from anti-slavery forces in the north.

Although the Pico Act was approved by the Legislature, signed by the governor and passed by California voters, the Pico Act did not come into effect, as it required approval from the U.S. Congress, which did not grant its consent. The growing tensions over the issue of slavery ultimately gave way to the larger national conflict, resulting in the American Civil War in 1861. The Civil War ended with the defeat of the Confederacy and the abolition of slavery throughout the United States.

It is important to note that while the issue of slavery played a role in California's early history and political divisions, the potential split into two separate states based on slavery was ultimately averted due to the actions of the U.S. Congress and the outbreak of the Civil War.

Overall, there were at least 220 attempts to break up California in separate states through the State history, but as of today, none of them were successful.

Tuesday, May 9, 2023

US Justice Department Disrupts Russian Cyberespionage Campaign

 What Happened?

Today, May 9, 2023, the US Justice Department has notified that it has successfully stopped a Russian cyberespionage campaign that has been going on for a long time. The campaign infected computer networks in many countries, including the United States. The hackers stole sensitive information from governments.

Who Did It?

The spying operation was linked to a unit of Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB). The hackers stole documents from hundreds of computer systems belonging to governments of NATO members, an unidentified journalist for a US news organization who reported on Russia, and other select targets of interest to the Kremlin.

What Did the US Justice Department Say?

The US Justice Department said that the FSB has relied on the Snake malware to conduct cyberespionage against the United States and its allies for 20 years. The specific targets were not named in court papers, but the affected networks were in more than 50 countries. US officials described the espionage campaign as "very consequential," saying the hackers had successfully exfiltrated sensitive documents from NATO countries.

What Did the Hackers Do?

The hackers used malicious software known as Snake to steal data from foreign governments. They routed the stolen data through compromised computers in the US as a way to cover their tracks. They operated from a known FSB facility in Ryazan, Russia.

Who Was Affected?

The sectors targeted by the hacking included government organizations, defense-related organizations, and companies developing cryptographic hardware. Countries all over the world were affected, including in Europe, Australia, part of Asia, and North and South America.

What is the Snake?

The Snake implant is considered the most sophisticated cyber espionage tool designed and used by Center 16 of Russia’s Federal Security Service (FSB) for long-term intelligence collection on sensitive targets. To conduct operations using this tool, the FSB created a covert peer-to-peer (P2P) network of numerous Snake-infected computers worldwide. Many systems in this P2P network serve as relay nodes which route disguised operational traffic to and from Snake implants on the FSB’s ultimate targets. Snake’s custom communications protocols employ encryption and fragmentation for confidentiality and are designed to hamper detection and collection efforts.

What Did the US Justice Department Do?

The US Justice Department used a warrant from a federal judge in Brooklyn to launch a high-tech operation using a specialized tool called Perseus that caused the malware to effectively self-destruct. Federal officials said they were confident that the FSB would not be able to reconstitute the malware implant.

Sources and Additional Information:

Sunday, May 7, 2023

Google Top Trending searches of 2022


What people are looking for online? What they care the most?

Google Trends show you the combined picture of the popular searching words in different categories.



1) Wordle

2) India vs England

3) Ukraine

4) Queen Elizabeth

5) Ind vs SA

6) World Cup

7) India vs West Indies

8) iPhone 14

9) Jeffrey Dahmer

10) Indian Premier League



1) Ukraine

2) Queen Elizabeth passing

3) Election results

4) Powerball numbers

5) Monkeypox

6) Hurricane Ian

7) Johnny Depp verdict

8) Texas school shooting

9) Will Smith Oscars

10) Roe v Wade



1) Johnny Depp

2) Will Smith

3) Amber Heard

4) Vladimir Putin

5) Chris Rock

6) Novak Djokovic

7) Anna Sorokin (Delvey)

8) Andrew Tate

9) Rishi Sunak

10) Simon Leviev



1) Johnny Depp

2) Will Smith

3) Amber Heard

4) Chris Rock

5) Jada Pinkett Smith

6) Joseph Quinn

7) Evan Peters

8) Andrew Garfield

9) Julia Fox

10) Ezra Miller



1) Novak Djokovic

2) Rafael Nadal

3) Serena Williams

4) Manti Te'o

5) Shaun White

6) 羽生結弦 (Yuzuru Hanyu)

7) Brittney Griner

8) Gerard Piqué

9) Cain Velasquez

10) Carlos Alcaraz



1) Thor: Love and Thunder

2) Black Adam

3) Top Gun: Maverick

4) The Batman

5) Encanto

6) Brahmāstra: Part One – Shiva

7) Jurassic World Dominion

8) K.G.F: Chapter 2

9) Uncharted

10) Morbius


TV Shows

1) Euphoria

2) House of the Dragon

3) Moon Knight

4) The Watcher

5) Inventing Anna

6) Dahmer

7) The Boys

8) All of Us Are Dead

9) Sandman

10) Heartstopper



1) पनीर पसंदा (Paneer pasanda)

2) Bolo caseiro (Homemade cake)

3) Tuzlu kurabiye (Salt cookie)

4) Overnight oats

5) zimtschnecken (Cinnamon rolls)

6) Irmik helvası (Semolina halva)

7) панкейки (Pancakes)

8) Baba ganoush

9) Bulgur pilavı (Bulgur rice)

10) Pasta salad



1) Tak Ingin Usai - Keisya Levronka

2) Pasoori - Ali Sethi and Shae Gill

3) Glimpse of Us - Joji

4) Satru 2 - Denny Caknan and Happy Asmara

5) ミックスナッツ - Official Hige Dandism

6) 時代 - Ado

7) As It Was - Harry Styles

8) Joko Tingkir - Farel Prayoga


10) Last Last - Burna Boy


Hum to Search: Top songs

1) Pasoori - Ali Sethi

2) Butter - BTS

3) Chaand Baaliyan - Aditya A

4) Heat Waves - Glass Animals

5) Enemy - Imagine Dragons

6) Believer - Imagine Dragons

7) Dynamite - BTS

8) Ainsi bas la vida - Indila

9) Everybody (Backstreet's Back) - Backstreet Boys

10) Srivalli - Javed Ali


Google Lens: Top houseplants

1) Philodendron

2) Devil's ivy

3) Bambusoideae

4) Echeveria

5) Dracaena

6) Fern

7) Jade plant

8) Dumb canes

9) Hoya

10) Alocasia


Google Lens: Top plants and fungi

1) Garden roses

2) Mushroom

3) Damask rose

4) Passion flowers

5) Philodendron

6) Devil's ivy

7) Hybrid tea rose

8) Miniature roses

9) Chrysanthemum

10) China rose


Google Lens: Top pets

1) Domestic short-haired cat

2) Tabby cat

3) Polydactyl cat

4) Aspin

5) Labrador Retriever

6) Pit bull

7) European shorthair

8) Hound

9) Munchkin cat

10) Staffordshire Bull Terrier


Google Maps: Top exhibits

1) DARK MATTER, Berlin, Germany

2) Van Gogh London Exhibit: The Immersive Experience

3) Van Gogh: The Immersive Experience - Washington DC

4) Illuminarium Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia

5) House of MinaLima, London, United Kingdom

6) The Harry Potter Photographic Exhibition, London, United Kingdom

7) Van Gogh Bristol: The Immersive Experience, Bristol, United Kingdom

8) Van Gogh: The Immersive Experience - Seattle

9) Little Canada, Toronto, Ontario

10) Dinos Alive Los Angeles, Montebello, CA


Google Maps: Top cultural landmarks

1) Buckingham Palace, London, United Kingdom

2) Big Ben, London, United Kingdom

3) The Great Pyramid of Giza, Al Giza Desert, Egypt

4) Christ the Redeemer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

5) Royal Palace of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium

6) Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Taipei City, Taiwan

7) Songshan Cultural and Creative Park, Taipei City, Taiwan

8) Louvre Pyramid, Paris, France

9) Palais Idéal, Hauterives, France

10) Gyeongbokgung Palace, Seoul, South Korea


Google Maps: Top scenic spots

1) Sky Garden, London, United Kingdom

2) Setas de Sevilla, Seville, Spain

3) Tanah Lot, Bali, Indonesia

4) HeHa Ocean View, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

5) Ponta da Piedade, Lagos, Portugal

6) Oshino Hakkai, Oshino, Japan

7) Belvedere del Gianicolo, Rome, Italy

8) Petrin Tower, Prague, Czechia

9) Miradouro de Santa Luzia, Lisbon, Portugal

10) Wuling, Nantou County, Taiwan